October 19, 2021

News

News Network

Joint Statement on Third United States – Greece Strategic Dialogue

26 min read

Office of the Spokesperson

The Governments of the United States and Greece held the third United States – Greece Strategic Dialogue in Washington, DC on October 14, 2021. Greek Minister of Foreign Affairs Nikos Dendias and U.S. Secretary of State Antony J. Blinken launched the Strategic Dialogue, which included high-level interagency representation from both countries.

The Strategic Dialogue underscores the deepening cooperation between the United States and Greece.  This year marks Greece’s bicentennial as a modern European state, and both the United States and Greece are highlighting an ever-stronger bilateral and transatlantic relationship based on shared values and interests, and reaffirming the will to enhance cooperation in the areas described below.

Begin Text:

Regional Cooperation

The United States and Greece underscored the continued importance of working together to strengthen peace and prosperity across the region. The two governments exchanged views on the Eastern Mediterranean, the Western Balkans, European and transatlantic institutions, and migration. The two countries also discussed wider international issues, including developments in the MENA region, Russia, and China.  Greece and the United States reinforced their commitment to a rules-based system and respect for international law, including international human rights obligations.  They lauded the resumption of exploratory talks and stressed the importance of avoiding destabilizing actionsThey emphasized the importance of diplomacy, good-neighborly relations and peaceful resolution of differences between countries.  Both noted the importance of respecting sovereignty, sovereign rights, international law, including the law of the sea, and existing regional frameworks to prevent future tensions.  They also reiterated their dedication to enhancing their close cooperation, using all appropriate means at their disposal to safeguard stability and security in the wider region.  The United States applauded Greece’s recent efforts to deepen ties with neighbors across the Eastern Mediterranean to enhance stability. The two sides reiterated their desire to bolster cooperation through the 3+1 format (Greece, Cyprus, Israel, plus the United States) on energy issues, economic development, counterterrorism, and the climate crisis and associated humanitarian challenges which recently affected the region. Greece and the United States reaffirmed the importance of the full, consistent and in good faith implementation of the Prespa Agreement. Both parties resolved to support continued integration, investment, and infrastructure development of Western Balkan partners.

The United States and Greece both continue to strongly support the Euro-Atlantic integration of the Western Balkans, including Kosovo, and stress the importance of urgently commencing accession negotiations between EU and both Albania and North Macedonia according to the set conditionalities. Both sides highlighted recent successes in national public health policies designed to curb the COVID-19 pandemic and cited the need to dispel disinformation and other malign influences that threatened public safety.  Both sides discussed priorities in responding to the humanitarian crisis in Afghanistan. Greece shared the progress made in processing and integrating asylum-seekers and refugees; both countries affirmed the importance of respecting the human rights of asylum seekers, migrants, and refugees.

Defense and Security

The United States and Greece welcomed the recent update to the Mutual Defense Cooperation Agreement (MDCA), which greatly contributes to the security of both nations and reflects our long-term, deepening and expanding, strategic defense partnership and cooperation and Greece’s geostrategic importance in contributing to the stability of the region.  Both sides reiterated their firm determination mutually to safeguard and protect the security, sovereignty, independence and territorial integrity of their respective countries. They both emphasized the continued importance of bilateral exercises and training activities throughout Greece that enhanced their ability to address regional security issues.  Both countries expressed interest in enhancing cooperation on security issues in the Western Balkans, Middle East, and North Africa, and the Eastern Mediterranean regions, and in that respect the United States acknowledged the importance of Greece in promoting stability and cooperation in the wider periphery.  The two governments expressed the joint desire to assist each other in maintaining strong and capable militaries and increase their modernization and interoperability.  The United States highlighted the F-16, S-70B, and P-3B upgrades and Greece’s procurement of MH-60R anti-submarine helicopters.  The United States welcomes Greece’s expression of interest to join the F-35 fighter program.  The United States expressed appreciation that Greece continued to exceed the 2014 Wales Summit pledge to spend at least 2 percent of GDP on defense and 20 percent of its defense budget on modernizing major equipment.  The United States also thanked Greece for its many contributions to NATO’s 20-year mission in Afghanistan. 

Law Enforcement and Counterterrorism

Both sides emphasized their commitment to continuing close cooperation to combat organized crime, cybercrime, complex financial crimes, the illicit use of cryptocurrencies, malign influence, and terrorism.  The two governments restated their shared interest in continuing law enforcement training to facilitate mutual legal assistance requests and extraditions, and enhance operations related to criminal investigations and homeland security reforms. The United States praised Greece for the implementation of its Passenger Name Record legislation and discussed Greek efforts to implement biometric-enabled national identity documents, which would permit a return to full Visa Waiver Program status. Greece underlined its recent efforts to increase border security infrastructure and surveillance, which helped stem the flow of cross-border crime and irregular migration.  The United States and Greece underscored the need to increase cooperation with Western Balkan countries on law enforcement and border security programs.  Greece announced the implementation of significant amendments to Greek law concerning preventing terrorism and violent extremism.

Trade and Investment

The United States and Greece welcomed the initial recovery of their economies from the COVID-19 pandemic and looked forward to deepening trade and investment across various sectors. Both governments stressed the importance of bilateral trade and investment consistent with broader multilateral frameworks such as the U.S.-EU trade policy. They lauded the recent inaugural meeting of the U.S.-EU Trade and Technology Council (TTC), with the aim to expand and deepen transatlantic investment and update the rules-based framework for the 21st century economy. In this context, Greece stressed the importance of a transatlantic accord for removal of trade measures against EU on steel & aluminum that directly affect bilateral trade.   Greece also stressed the importance of enhancing bilateral cooperation on mutual recognition of control systems for the entry of Greek agri-food products to the United States.  Both sides hailed the presence of significant new U.S. investments in Greece’s technology and digital sectors following the 2020 signing of our Science and Technology Agreement and Greece’s removal from the USTR 301 Watch List. The United States congratulated Greece on its continued development of Thessaloniki as a regional technological and educational hub and expressed support for significant U.S. tech investments to further develop Greece’s digital economy. Greece highlighted the main incentives granted for private and strategic investments with a special reference to the Emblematic Investments and the Just Development Transition Plan. Both sides welcomed bilateral cooperation on emerging technologies.  Both sides reiterated their support for women’s economic empowerment, with the United States highlighting TechCamp Thessaloniki, a U.S.-funded program designed to support women-led startups and create equal opportunities in the entrepreneurship ecosystem.  The United States and Greece noted they look forward to exchanging views on trends and best practices regarding investment screening.  The United States highlighted the new Build Back Better World initiative as a possible area of cooperation for investment in low and middle-income economies. The United States also welcomed the investment of Greek companies in the United States. Through an innovative program in cooperation with Enterprise Greece, 43 companies from Greece participated in the annual SelectUSA Investment Summit last June – the largest delegation ever from Greece. The United States welcomed more investment successes from Greece.  The United States welcomed the proposal of Greece for the signing of an MOU on Tourism.  Both sides reiterated the importance of enhancing bilateral tourism flows.  Greece expressed its satisfaction for the maintenance of flights uniting the two countries.  Both countries intend to consider the establishment of new all year-round air connections.

Energy and Environment

The United States and Greece recommitted to their shared goals of increasing energy diversification and security, promoting fair and equitable access to greener sources of energy, and addressing climate change through decarbonization policies. The United States lauded Greece for its growing role as a regional energy hub and welcomed completion of the Trans-Adriatic Pipeline and progress on the Interconnector Greece Bulgaria, set to become operational in 2022. Greece shared developments on other regional energy projects that will further diversify regional energy supplies and support the phaseout of coal, such as the planned Greece-North Macedonia Interconnector and the Floating Storage Regasification Unit in Alexandroupoli.  Both sides celebrated the increasingly interconnected energy relationship between Greece and the United States, both in terms of bilateral trade and investment and as a positive driver of progress towards energy security and diversification goals. Greece pointed out the importance of natural gas discoveries by Israel, Cyprus and Egypt as a valuable diversified energy source for southern and southeastern Europe.

Greece reiterated its goal to phase out lignite by 2025, and the United States praised Greece’s steps forward on its 2019 National Energy and Climate Action Plan. Both sides acknowledged the importance of a diversified strategy to support the energy transition and our broader goal to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. This includes opportunities to expand energy efficiency initiatives and increase the supply of clean energy resources like offshore wind, energy storage, and hydrogen. The United States highlighted increasing U.S. investments in green energy projects in Greece and stressed the need for continued decarbonization and renewable energy development, and Greece shared updates on its planned windfarms and solar energy projects.  The United States affirmed support for Greece’s National Initiative Addressing Climate Change Impacts on Cultural and Natural Heritage and welcomed the participation of American companies in Greece’s innovative hydrogen power initiatives. Both governments underlined the unique role Greece could play in breaking regional energy monopolies, facilitating energy investment in developing economies, and confronting the global climate crisis head-on.

Humanitarian Challenges and Disaster Preparedness

The United States and Greece acknowledged the long-term challenges posed by climate change, particularly the recent wildfires across the Mediterranean region, and committed to establishing a new Strategic Dialogue pillar on Humanitarian Challenges and Disaster Preparedness. Greece highlighted its resolve to confront these challenges by showcasing the creation of its new Ministry on Climate and Civil Protection.  The United States and Greece underscored their commitment to develop stronger ties between their respective agencies responsible for disaster prevention-preparedness and resilience building, including wildfire response and recovery. Greece thanked the U.S. for providing a P-8 Poseidon aircraft to assist Greece in fighting historic wildfires and welcomes a U.S. assessment team which is on the ground in Greece to assist in post-fire recovery.  Greece expressed interest in capacity building related to fire suppression and organizational disaster management to tackle acute crises. Over the longer-term, Greece emphasized the importance of soil stabilization, erosion control, and reforestation. The United States and Greece discussed the importance of an implementation plan for future training and agreed to begin working level consultations.

People-to-People Ties

The United States and Greece reaffirmed the meaningful connections that further mutual understanding between the people of both nations, especially in Greece’s bicentennial year.  Both countries acknowledged the challenges the pandemic posed and remain committed to supporting cultural and educational exchanges, particularly through the Fulbright Program, for which Greece has reinstituted its annual contributions, and the recent signing of the Cultural Property Agreement, which stands as an enduring commitment to stem cultural property trafficking and to preserve heritage.  Both countries also reiterated a commitment to collaborate on STEM programming, including via Mission Greece’s expanded American Spaces program, English language training, and the TechGirls program.  The United States reaffirmed support of Greece’s efforts to establish new collaborations between U.S. and Greek universities.

The United States and Greece look forward to exploring opportunities to enhance vocational education and training in Greece as well as programs such as the Future Leaders Exchange (FLEX) that develop cross cultural and leadership skills while strengthening the transatlantic relationship. The two countries also reiterated a commitment to work together on capacity building and further collaboration in the creative industries, and in particular in the film and audio-visual sector, and to continue to explore public-private partnerships in culture and technology. Both countries expressed continued support for Holocaust Education and the United States praised Greece’s first presidency of the International Holocaust Remembrance Alliance, dedicated to preserving the memory of historical events which are significant to both countries.

More from: Office of the Spokesperson

News Network

  • Court Intervention Teams Target Substance Abuse
    In U.S Courts
    Two specialized programs in the Northern District of California are harnessing local resources to help high-risk individuals rebuild their lives.
    [Read More…]
  • Indictment Charges Alaska Man for Threatening a California Synagogue
    In Crime News
    A federal grand jury in Alaska, returned an indictment charging William Alexander, 49, for threatening to kill the congregants of a California synagogue, the Justice Department announced today.
    [Read More…]
  • Urgent Warfighter Needs: Opportunities Exist to Expedite Development and Fielding of Joint Capabilities
    In U.S GAO News
    What GAO FoundA majority of the initiatives GAO reviewed (26 of 30) met, or expected to meet, the Department of Defense’s (DOD) expectation for fielding a capability in response to joint urgent operational needs within 2 years. However, performance in meeting schedule estimates varied, and more than half of the initiatives experienced schedule delays.Initiatives leveraged three types of solutions: (1) off-the-shelf products, (2) modifications of off-the-shelf items to add capabilities, and (3) products requiring technology development. Off-the-shelf solutions should be fielded the quickest because existing products are being bought. However, while off-the-shelf solutions were fielded quickly once a contract was awarded, it took longer than the two other types to identify, fund, and contract for off-the-shelf solutions. In addition to the program offices that manage traditional acquisition programs, initiatives were also managed by research laboratories and engineering centers, such as the Army Research Laboratory or the Naval Surface Warfare Center. Program offices fielded solutions faster, in part, because program offices are experienced in the full range of acquisition activities. Also, laboratories and engineering centers depended on funding provided by other organizations and delays in receiving this funding affected the start of some initiatives.Acquisition organizations employed various practices to overcome challenges affecting fielding of capabilities within short time frames. For example, although these practices could affect the prices paid, shorter times were associated with using existing contracts, awarding contracts without agreeing on contract terms (prices), or awarding contracts without competition. U.S. Central Command officials stated that they were not aware of all initiatives underway or the expected schedule for fielding capabilities and this could affect planning activities. In some cases, initiative decision memorandums were prepared that documented schedule estimates but such memorandums are not required for all initiatives. Also, some organizations were proactive in communicating with U.S. Central Command and this facilitated a clearer understanding of requirements and plans for fielding initiatives, but regular communication is not required.Why GAO Did This StudyWith the conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan, DOD has had to accelerate efforts to field capabilities addressing urgent warfighter needs, including joint needs affecting more than one service. GAO was asked to assess (1) how quickly capabilities responding to joint urgent operational needs have been developed and fielded and (2) what key practices enabled executing organizations to overcome challenges. To do this, GAO studied a sample of joint urgent operational needs including all urgent needs over $100 million approved from April 2008 through December 2010 and a random selection of smaller urgent needs. GAO analyzed data on key events and issues in the development and fielding of solutions and met with service and DOD officials responsible for validating, assigning, and executing joint urgent needs.
    [Read More…]
  • Muncie, Indiana Police Officer Pleads Guilty to Misprision of Felony for Concealing Crime Committed by Another Officer
    In Crime News
    Dalton Kurtz, 31, an officer with the Muncie Police Department (MPD), in Muncie, Indiana, pleaded guilty today to one count of misprision of felony, for concealing and failing to report a fellow officer’s inappropriate use of force.
    [Read More…]
  • Department of Justice Issues Annual Report to Congress on its Work to Combat Elder Fraud and Abuse
    In Crime News
    Yesterday, the Department of Justice issued its Annual Report to Congress on Department of Justice Activities to Combat Elder Fraud and Abuse.  The report summarizes the department’s extensive efforts from July 1, 2019 through June 30, 2020.
    [Read More…]
  • Hardrock Mining Management: Selected Countries, U.S. States, and Tribes Have Different Governance Structures but Primarily Use Leasing
    In U.S GAO News
    What GAO Found Australia, Canada, and Chile—three top mineral-producing countries as of 2018—generally own the minerals on private and government lands and manage hardrock mining at the national or regional (state, provincial, or territorial) government levels. Australia and Canada use national and regional governments to manage mining, whereas Chile uses national governance structures. All three countries primarily use leasing to manage mining. However, some Canadian provinces allow mineral exploration using a location system that provides open access to land to stake a mining claim. Australia, Canada, and Chile collect royalties and corporate income taxes on mineral extraction; however, the types and rates vary. For example, Canada and Chile's royalties are based on operators' net proceeds, while some Australian regional governments' royalties are also based on net market value. Primary Stages of Hardrock Mining In 11 western states—Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, New Mexico, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wyoming—responsibility for managing mining on state-owned lands, including trust lands, is decentralized among multiple governance structures. These states primarily use leasing, although Alaska also allows operators to stake mine claims on certain lands, according to state officials. All states collect royalties, or taxes that are similar to royalties, on mining. The types and rates vary, but states typically base their rates on quantity or weight, gross revenue, net smelter returns (based on the value of minerals extracted, with deductions for processing), or net proceeds. Hardrock mining on trust and restricted fee lands (tribal lands) is managed by governance structures at the tribal and federal government levels, in accordance with the approaches established in tribal and federal law. Tribes decide whether to allow hardrock mining on their lands. If so, multiple governance structures at the tribal level may be involved in managing the mining, depending on the requirements of tribal law, which may vary by tribe. In addition, governance structures at the federal level are involved in managing mining. Two federal laws—the Indian Mineral Development Act of 1982 and the Indian Mineral Leasing Act—require the use of minerals agreements, as defined in regulation, or leases, respectively. However, few tribes allow hardrock mining on their lands, according to the Department of the Interior. Why GAO Did This Study Hardrock minerals such as gold, silver, and copper play a significant role in U.S. and global economies—in 2018, hardrock minerals extracted worldwide were valued at about $981 billion. However, extracting these minerals creates the potential for public health, safety, and environmental hazards. Different approaches exist to manage these hazards and hardrock mining. GAO recently reported on the number and characteristics of mining operations on federal lands in GAO-20-461R and was also asked to review the methods different governments use to manage mining. This report describes the governance structures and approaches used to manage mining on (1) selected mineral-producing countries' land, (2) state-owned land in selected U.S. states, and (3) tribal lands subject to federal laws and regulations. GAO reviewed laws, regulations, government documents, legal guides, and nongovernmental and industry reports. GAO also interviewed nongovernmental and mining association representatives and officials from selected states and countries. GAO selected countries that were top mineral producers, perceived by researchers to have good mining governance, and were attractive to mining investors. GAO selected states in the western region of the U.S. that produced the highest value of hardrock minerals compared with other U.S. regions. GAO examined federal laws and regulations that generally govern mining on tribal land and interviewed one tribe on mining approaches used. For more information, contact Mark E. Gaffigan at (202) 512-3841 or gaffiganm@gao.gov.
    [Read More…]
  • Pain doctor pays to settle allegations arising from false billing
    In Justice News
    A 44-year-old physician [Read More…]
  • Justice Department and EPA Reach Clean Air Act Settlement with Gear Box Z for Selling Defeat Devices
    In Crime News
    Arizona-based Gear Box Z (GBZ) has agreed to stop manufacturing and selling aftermarket automotive products widely known as “defeat devices,” that, when installed, bypass, defeat or render inoperative Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-certified emission controls on motor vehicles thereby increasing emissions and harming air quality.
    [Read More…]
  • Honduran immigrant convicted of alien smuggling
    In Justice News
    Read full article at: [Read More…]
  • RGV attorney admits to detainee list bribery scheme
    In Justice News
    A 40-year-old Weslaco [Read More…]
  • Attorney General Merrick B. Garland Delivers Remarks at Announcement of Pattern or Practice Investigation into the Minneapolis Police Department
    In Crime News
    Good morning.  Like so many of you, I have closely watched the events in Minnesota. Although the state’s prosecution was successful, I know that nothing can fill the void that the loved ones of George Floyd have felt since his death. My heart goes out to them and to all those who have experienced similar loss. 
    [Read More…]
  • On the Fifth Anniversary of the Murder of Xulhaz Mannan
    In Crime Control and Security News
    Antony J. Blinken, [Read More…]
  • Former Tennessee County Official Indicted for Kidnapping and Sexual Assault
    In Crime News
    Today, the Justice Department announced the unsealing of a nine-count indictment charging Michael Harvel, 59, of Crossville, Tennessee, with civil rights violations for kidnapping and sexually assaulting women that he supervised during his tenure as the Cumberland County, Tennessee, Solid Waste Director. FBI agents arrested Harvel at his home earlier today, and he will appear before a U.S. Magistrate Judge later this afternoon.
    [Read More…]
  • Secretary Antony J. Blinken at a Ceremony to Commemorate the 20th Anniversary of the September 11, 2001 Terrorist Attacks
    In Crime Control and Security News
    Antony J. Blinken, [Read More…]
  • Joint Statement by The NATO Foreign Ministers on Afghanistan
    In Crime Control and Security News
    Office of the [Read More…]
  • Priority Open Recommendations: Department of the Treasury
    In U.S GAO News
    What GAO Found In April 2020, GAO identified 31 priority recommendations for the Department of the Treasury. Since then, Treasury has implemented 14 of those recommendations by, among other things, developing a cybersecurity risk management strategy that includes key elements identified in federal guidance and by establishing a process for conducting an organization-wide cybersecurity risk assessment. In June 2021, GAO identified 4 additional priority recommendations for Treasury, bringing the total number to 21. These recommendations involve the following areas: Improving payment integrity Improving cybersecurity Improving information technology workforce planning Modernizing the U.S. financial regulatory system Improving federal financial management ( Evaluating the performance and effectiveness of tax expenditures Full implementation of these open recommendations could significantly improve Treasury's operations. Why GAO Did This Study Priority open recommendations are the GAO recommendations that warrant priority attention from heads of key departments or agencies because their implementation could save large amounts of money; improve congressional and/or executive branch decision-making on major issues; eliminate mismanagement, fraud, and abuse; or ensure that programs comply with laws and funds are legally spent, among other benefits. Since 2015 GAO has sent letters to selected agencies to highlight the importance of implementing such recommendations. For more information, contact Michelle Sager at (202) 512-6806 or sagerm@gao.gov.
    [Read More…]
  • Illinois-Based Charter School Management Company To Pay $4.5 Million To Settle Claims Relating To E-Rate Contracts
    In Crime News
    Concept Schools, NFP, has agreed to pay $4.5 million as part of a civil settlement to resolve allegations that it violated the False Claims Act by engaging in non-competitive bidding practices in connection with the Federal Communications Commission’s (FCC) E-Rate Program, the Department of Justice announced today. 
    [Read More…]
  • Joint Statement by the Foreign Ministers of China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States on the Fiftieth Anniversary of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons
    In Crime Control and Security News
    Office of the [Read More…]
  • Secretary Michael R. Pompeo at the IISS Manama Dialogue
    In Crime Control and Security News
    Michael R. Pompeo, [Read More…]
  • Quantum Computing and Communications: Status and Prospects
    In U.S GAO News
    What GAO Found Quantum information technologies aim to use the properties of nature at atomic scales to accomplish tasks that are not achievable with existing technologies. These technologies rely on qubits, the quantum equivalent of classical computer bits. Scientists are creating qubits from particles, such as atoms or particles of light, or objects that mimic them, such as superconducting circuits. Unlike classical bits, qubits can be intrinsically linked to each other and can be any combination of 0 and 1 simultaneously. These capabilities enable two potentially transformational applications—quantum computing and communications. However, quantum information cannot be copied, is fragile, and can be irreversibly lost, resulting in errors that are challenging to correct. Examples of quantum computing hardware Some quantum computing and communications technologies are available for limited uses, but will likely require extensive development before providing significant commercial value. For example, some small error-prone quantum computers are available for limited applications, and a quantum communications technology known as quantum key distribution can be purchased. According to agency officials and stakeholders, additional quantum technology development may take at least a decade and cost billions, but such estimates are highly uncertain. Quantum computing and communications technologies will likely develop together because of some shared physics principles, laboratory techniques, and common hardware.  Quantum computers may have applications in many sectors, but it is not clear where they will have the greatest impact. Quantum communications technologies may have uses for secure communications, quantum networking, and a future quantum internet. Some applications—such as distributed quantum computing, which connects multiple quantum computers together to solve a problem—require both quantum computing and communications technologies. Potential drawbacks of quantum technology include cost, complexity, energy consumption, and the possibility of malicious use. GAO identified four factors that affect quantum technology development and use: (1) collaboration, (2) workforce size and skill, (3) investment, and (4) the supply chain. The table below describes options that policymakers—legislative bodies, government agencies, standards-setting organizations, industry, and other groups—could consider to help address these factors, enhance benefits, or mitigate drawbacks of quantum technology development and use. Policy Options to Help Address Factors that Affect Quantum Technology Development and Use, or to Enhance Benefits or Mitigate Drawbacks Policy options and potential implementation approaches Opportunities Considerations Collaboration (report p. 37) Policymakers could encourage further collaboration in developing quantum technologies, such as collaboration among: Scientific disciplines Sectors Countries Collaboration among disciplines could enable technology breakthroughs. Collaboration could help accelerate research and development, as well as facilitate technology transfer from laboratories to the private sector, federal agencies, and others. International collaboration could bring mutual benefits to the U.S. and other countries by accelerating scientific discovery and promoting economic growth. Intellectual property concerns could make quantum technology leaders reluctant to collaborate. Institutional differences could make collaboration difficult. Export controls may complicate international collaboration, but are also needed to manage national security risks. Workforce (report p. 39) Policymakers could consider ways to expand the quantum technology workforce by, for example: Leveraging existing programs and creating new ones Promoting job training Facilitating appropriate hiring of an international workforce who are deemed not to pose a national security risk Educational programs could provide students and personnel with the qualifications and skills needed to work in quantum technologies across the private sector, public sector, and academia. Training personnel from different disciplines in quantum technologies could enhance the supply of quantum talent. International hiring could allow U.S. quantum employers to attract and retain top talent from other countries. Efforts to increase the quantum technology labor force may affect the supply of expertise in other technology fields with high demand. It may be difficult to adequately develop workforce plans to accommodate quantum technology needs. International hiring could be challenging because of visa requirements and export controls, both in place for national security reasons. Investment (report p. 41) Policymakers could consider ways to incentivize or support investment in quantum technology development, such as: Investments targeted toward specific results Continued investment in quantum technology research centers Grand challenges to spur solutions from the public More targeted investments could help advance quantum technologies. These may include investments in improving access to quantum computers and focusing on real-world applications. Quantum technologies testbed facility investments could support technology adoption, since testbeds allow researchers to explore new technologies and test the functionality of devices. Grand challenges have shown success in providing new capabilities and could be leveraged for quantum technologies. It may be difficult to fund projects with longer-term project timeframes. A lack of standards or, conversely, developing standards too early, could affect quantum technology investments. Without standards, businesses and consumers may not be confident that products will work as expected. Developing standards too early may deter the growth of alternative technology pathways. Supply Chain (report p. 43) Policymakers could encourage the development of a robust, secure supply chain for quantum technologies by, for example: Enhancing efforts to identify gaps in the global supply chain Expanding fabrication capabilities for items with an at-risk supply chain A robust supply chain could help accelerate progress and mitigate quantum technology development risks by expanding access to necessary components and materials or providing improved economies of scale. Quantum material fabrication capabilities improvements could ensure a reliable supply of materials to support quantum technology development. Facilities dedicated to producing quantum materials could help support scalable manufacturing of component parts needed for quantum technology development. The current quantum supply chain is global, which poses risks. For example, it is difficult to obtain a complete understanding of a component’s potential vulnerabilities. Some critical components, such as rare earths, are mined primarily outside of the U.S., which may pose risks to the supply chain that are difficult to mitigate. Quantum manufacturing facilities take a long time to develop and can be costly. Source: GAO. | GAO-21-104422 Why GAO Did This Study Quantum information technologies could dramatically increase capabilities beyond what is possible with classical technologies. Future quantum computers could have high-value applications in security, cryptography, drug development, and energy. Future quantum communications could allow for secure communications by making information challenging to intercept without the eavesdropper being detected. GAO conducted a technology assessment on (1) the availability of quantum computing and communications technologies and how they work, (2) potential future applications of such technologies and benefits and drawbacks from their development and use, and (3) factors that could affect technology development and policy options available to help address those factors, enhance benefits, or mitigate drawbacks. To address these objectives, GAO reviewed key reports and scientific literature; interviewed government, industry, academic representatives, and potential end users; and convened a meeting of experts in collaboration with the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. GAO is identifying policy options in this report. For more information, contact Karen L. Howard at (202) 512-6888 or howardk@gao.gov.
    [Read More…]
Network News © 2005 Area.Control.Network™ All rights reserved.